Diseace1

Sjukdomar & åkommor som kan drabba dobermann. Source OMIA of Canine Disorders

 

 

CARDIOMYOPATHY Organ Systems Involved Cardiovascular

Alternative Names Ventricular Hypertrophy Heart Disease, Hypertrophic in the dog Canine Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

 

Brief Description

Affected animals show a dilation of all the chambers of the heart with some increase in the heart muscle mass (hypertrophy) and a reduction in the contracting abilities of the ventricles.

 

Presenting Signs

The degree of weakening of the heart wall has been found to relate directly to the severity of symptoms; weaker walls result in a reduced volume of blood being pumped around the body. Hence, symptoms would be likely to vary depending on the severity of the weakening. Some affected dogs show no clinical signs and have no history of physical problems. Other cases, however, may show clinical signs such as fatigue and possibly collapse, coughing, shortness of breath, heart murmur, heart failure or sudden death, most commonly during or immediately following exertion. Additional clinical signs depend on whether it is right sided or left sided heart failure but may include abdominal distension, anorexia and weight loss.

 

Dogs at Risk

Male dogs Larger dogs

 

 

 

FACTOR VIII DEFICIENCY Organ Systems Involved Cardiovascular

 

Alternative Names Haemophilia A

 

Classic Haemophilia HEMA Hemophilia Factor VIII Antihaemolytic Factor Deficiency AHF

 

Brief Description

A bleeding disorder in which there is a permanent tendency to haemorrhage, because of a deficiency in the clotting factor VIII necessary for blood clots to form. The severity of this disorder can range from mild to extreme.

 

Presenting Signs

Mild forms of Haemophilia A may not be detected until trauma or routine surgery (particularly castration) causes excessive haemorrhage and bleeding under the skin. Extreme bleeding from the umbilical cord and/or tail or feet (at tail-docking and dew-claw removal time) is common. Prolonged bleeding in severe cases can be fatal. Problems often arise after vaccination, as live vaccines effect the number and function of clotting cells for a period of 10-14 days after vaccination. There may be excessive bleeding during teething and puppies may suffer from bloody diarrhoea. Affected dogs typically have episodes of lameness caused by ongoing bleeding into joints due to the normal impact of everyday motion. Larger weight-bearing joints such as the elbow and stifles are more likely to be involved, and may develop a form of arthritis.

 

Dogs at Risk

Male dogs are most commonly affected. Females are usually classified as 'carriers' (passing the disorder onto their offspring without suffering clinically from the disorder themselves) but can also present with symptoms.

 

HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA Organ Systems Involved Cardiovascular

 

Alternative Names Hemolytic Anemia

 

Brief Description

In haemolytic anaemia, the body destroys red blood cells at an accelerated rate. The damaged cells are subsequently removed from the blood, usually by the immune system in the spleen, liver and bone marrow.

 

Presenting Signs

Affected dogs show a range of physical signs. These include weakness, lethargy, pallor (pale gums and skin), jaundice, rapid heart beat, an reduced ability to exercise, fatigue, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea and often premature death. This is due to lower than normal levels of red blood cells, which are responsible for carrying oxygen around the body. Haemolytic anaemia may also be associated with mental problems such as depression. There are many forms of the disorder, however an abnormal immune system response, in which normal red blood cells are recognised as foreign and are attacked by the body's immune system, is the most common form of the disorder. This form is known as autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AHA) or immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA).

 

Dogs at Risk

Dogs of four and five years of age are at a greatest risk of developing the disease. It is also four times more prevalent in female than in male dogs.

 

 

HAEMOPHILIA A Organ Systems Involved Cardiovascular

 

Alternative Names Factor VIII Deficiency Classic Haemophilia HEMA Hemophilia Factor VIII Antihaemolytic Factor Deficiency AHF

 

Brief Description

A bleeding disorder in which there is a permanent tendency to haemorrhage, because of a deficiency in the clotting factor VIII necessary for blood clots to form. The severity of this disorder can range from mild to extreme.

 

Presenting Signs

Mild forms of Haemophilia A may not be detected until trauma or routine surgery (particularly castration) causes excessive haemorrhage and bleeding under the skin. Extreme bleeding from the umbilical cord and/or tail or feet (at tail-docking and dew-claw removal time) is common. Prolonged bleeding in severe cases can be fatal. Problems often arise after vaccination, as live vaccines effect the number and function of clotting cells for a period of 10-14 days after vaccination. There may be excessive bleeding during teething and puppies may suffer from bloody diarrhoea. Affected dogs typically have episodes of lameness caused by ongoing bleeding into joints due to the normal impact of everyday motion. Larger weight-bearing joints such as the elbow and stifles are more likely to be involved, and may develop a form of arthritis.

 

Dogs at Risk

Male dogs are most commonly affected. Females are usually classified as 'carriers' (passing the disorder onto their offspring without suffering clinically from the disorder themselves) but can also present with symptoms.

 

HEMANGIOSARCOMA Organ Systems Involved Cardiovascular

 

Integument

Brief Description

A cancer of blood vessels most notably in the speen, liver or skin

 

PERSISTENT RIGHT AORTIC ARCH Organ Systems Involved Cardiovascular

 

Alternative Names Persistent Fourth Right Aortic Arch PRAA

 

Brief Description

Persistent Right Aortic Arch occurs when there is a malformation of a large blood vessel (the aorta) and its branches, constricting the oesophagus (the tubular structure between the mouth and stomach) near the base of the heart.

 

Presenting Signs

The disorder is generally detected once puppies have begun to eat solid foods. The constriction of the oesophagus causes regurgitation of food, most often shortly after eating. The dog may regurgitate on a frequent basis. This occurs as the solid food is unable to move past the constriction and into the stomach and is consequently regurgitated. An affected pup will often not develop properly and may be very thin yet may have a large appetite, trying to re-eat any regurgitated food. Occasionally the animal will develop a continuous heart murmur. A bulge may be seen on the animal near the neck. The dog may develop pneumonia and have difficulty breathing as some of regurgitated food can be breathed in down the windpipe into the lungs. If this happens the dog will cough and wheeze. A crackling sound may be heard on breathing and the dog may also have a fever. The severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the malformation. Occasionally a dog may have the disorder yet show no obvious signs.

 

SYNCOPE Organ Systems Involved Cardiovascular

 

Brief Description

Periodic collapsing or fainting

 

VON WILLEBRAND'S DISEASE Organ Systems Involved Cardiovascular

 

Alternative Names Angiohemophilia Pseudohemophilia Vascular hemophilia.

 

Brief Description

The process of blood clotting requires a number of important factors, and dogs suffering from von Willebrand's disease have a deficiency of von Willebrand's factor necessary for the normal clotting of blood.

 

Presenting Signs

The majority of dogs with von Willebrand's disease do not bleed spontaneously, rather, bleeding is usually started by physical abrasion, and may be noticed during surgical procedures, vaccination or drug therapy. Bleeding tends to be mostly from the mucous membranes (the moist linings of the body such as the gums, skin between the toes and the skin of the vulva and penis) and the severity is highly variable. Larger dogs may experience increased bleeding due to the pressure of weight on tiny blood vessels. Due to the fact that bleeding doesn't usually occur until surgery or an injury occurs, many cases are not recognised early in life and it is not uncommon to diagnose von Willebrand's in mature and even aged patients.

 

ADDISON'S DISEASE Organ Systems Involved Endocrine

 

Alternative Names Hypoadrenocorticism Primary adrenocortical insufficiency Adrenal cortical atrophy

 

Brief Description

Adrenal cortical atrophy is destruction of the outer layer of the adrenal glands, small glands situated on the kidneys. This results in deficient production of hormones called mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids.

 

Presenting Signs

The most common symptoms of this disorder are lethargy, vomiting, anorexia and weakness. Other signs such as diarrhoea, weight loss, increased thirst and increased urination may also be evident. The destruction of the adrenal glands is a gradual process. Initially partial destruction of the adrenal cortex produces symptoms that are only obvious during stressful situations such as boarding, travel or surgery. As the adrenal glands are progressively destroyed, the symptoms are evident even in non-stressful situations, and the majority of dogs have chronic problems that may have been present for up to one year.

 

 

Dogs at Risk

Young to middle aged female dogs and castrated male dogs.

 

 

COPPER STORAGE DISEASE Organ Systems Involved Endocrine Nervous/sensory

 

Alternative Names Copper Toxicosis (Dogs) Hepatic Copper Toxicosis (Dogs) Hepatolenticular Degeneration (Human), Wilson disease (Human) Copper Storage Hepatitis (Dogs) Copper Hepatoxicosis (Dogs) Copper-associated Hepatopathy (Dogs) Copper Storage Disease (Dogs)

 

Brief Description

Due to abnormal metabolism, copper accumulates in the body and causes poisoning (toxicity) mainly in the liver and the brain, resulting in liver disease and nervous system problems.

 

Presenting Signs

The canine disease, copper toxicosis differs genetically from the human form, Wilson disease. However, both produce similar symptoms and are treated in similar ways. Copper toxicosis falls into three categories, the first being the asymptomatic form, in which young dogs do not show any signs, as copper has not accumulated enough to cause toxicity. The second or acute form is when dogs of up to six years of age have a high copper accumulation within the liver, and show signs associated with liver disease such as depression, loss of appetite, lethargy, jaundice and vomiting. In the advanced stage of the disease, fluid may accumulate around the abdomen. The third or chronic form affects middle-aged to older dogs, and signs are similar to the acute group but less severe. Other common clinical signs include ongoing weight loss and deterioration of general condition. Stressful events, either physical or psychological, such as whelping, being shown, shipping, or a change in environment, may precipitate these episodes.

 

 

COPPER TOXICOSIS Organ Systems Involved Endocrine Nervous/sensory

 

Alternative Names Copper Storage Disease (Dogs) Hepatolenticular Degeneration (Human) Wilson disease (Human Copper Storage Hepatitis (Dogs) Copper Hepatoxicosis (Dogs) Copper-associated Hepatopathy (Dogs) Hepatic Copper Toxicosis (Dogs)

 

Brief Description

Due to abnormal metabolism, copper accumulates in the body and causes poisoning (toxicity) mainly in the liver and the brain, resulting in liver disease and nervous system problems.

 

Presenting Signs

The canine disease, copper toxicosis differs genetically from the human form, Wilson disease. However, both produce similar symptoms and are treated in similar ways. Copper toxicosis falls into three categories, the first being the asymptomatic form, in which young dogs do not show any signs, as copper has not accumulated enough to cause toxicity. The second or acute form is when dogs of up to six years of age have a high copper accumulation within the liver, and show signs associated with liver disease such as depression, loss of appetite, lethargy, jaundice and vomiting. In the advanced stage of the disease, fluid may accumulate around the abdomen. The third or chronic form affects middle-aged to older dogs, and signs are similar to the acute group but less severe. Other common clinical signs include ongoing weight loss and deterioration of general condition. Stressful events, either physical or psychological, such as whelping, being shown, shipping, or a change in environment, may precipitate these episodes.

 

 

HYPOTHYROIDISM Organ Systems Involved Endocrine

 

Alternative Names Goiter Idiopathic atrophy of the thyroid gland Neoplastic destruction of thyroid tissue Thyroiditis

 

Brief Description

Endocrine

 

Presenting Signs

Hypothyroidism is a deficiency of thyroid gland activity. Impaired production andsecretion of the thyroid hormones, especially thyroxine, results in a lower than normal metabolic rate with several associated clinical signs.

 

 

Dogs at Risk

The clinical signs associated with hypothyroidism are all related to an overall slowing of metabolism in the cells. Lethargy, fatigue, sparse or coarse coat, hair loss, thickening of the skin, low body temperature, intolerance to cold, increased body weight, slow heart rate, mental dullness, nervous system problems, a lack of or slowing of the oestrus cycle, and infertility are all common symptoms of this disorder. With the rare form of hypothyroidism present from birth, in addition to the above clinical signs there may be changes to the skeleton. These dogs may have delayed bone maturation and the growth plates at the ends of the long bones may fail to close (this normally happens as a dog matures). This abnormality will be visible in X-rays. Hypothyroidism is most common in dogs four to ten years old. Risks of developing hypothyroidism are higher in spayed females than in intact female dogs."

 

 

LYMPHOCYTIC THYROIDITIS Organ Systems Involved Endocrine

 

Alternative Names Thyroiditis Autoimmune Thyroiditis Idiopathic Thyroid Atrophy

 

Brief Description

The immune system aberrantly attacks the normal thyroid gland. This prevents storage of thyroid hormone, resulting in low thyroid hormone levels and changes to the metabolism, nervous system and skin.

 

Presenting Signs

Thyroiditis is the major cause of hypothyroidism (low activity of the thyroid gland) and many dogs may harbour the disease for years before showing clinical signs. While hypothyroidism is not life threatening, quality of life is substandard. Signs include problems with the nervous system and muscles, such as paralysis, muscle-wasting, foot-dragging and seizures. The skin of affected dogs may be dry and scaly, with hair-loss, skin infections, dark pigmentation and ongoing skin odour. The reproductive system is affected, with male dogs displaying infertility and a lack of libido, while bitches have an absence of heat cycles or may give birth to stillborn pups. There may be gastrointestinal problems with vomiting, diarrhoea and constipation. Other signs include eye problems (e.g. eyelid infections), liver inflammation, bleeding, loss of the sense of smell, mental dullness, cardiac problems (e.g. slow heart rate) and intolerance to cold.

 

 

Dogs at Risk

Castrated males and spayed females have increased risk. It is common in middle aged dogs.

 

 

THYROIDITIS Organ Systems Involved Endocrine

 

Alternative Names Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Autoimmune Thyroiditis Idiopathic Thyroid Atrophy

 

Brief Description

The immune system aberrantly attacks the normal thyroid gland. This prevents storage of thyroid hormone, resulting in low thyroid hormone levels and changes to the metabolism, nervous system and skin.

 

Presenting Signs

Thyroiditis is the major cause of hypothyroidism (low activity of the thyroid gland) and many dogs may harbour the disease for years before showing clinical signs. While hypothyroidism is not life threatening, quality of life is substandard. Signs include problems with the nervous system and muscles, such as paralysis, muscle-wasting, foot-dragging and seizures. The skin of affected dogs may be dry and scaly, with hair-loss, skin infections, dark pigmentation and ongoing skin odour. The reproductive system is affected, with male dogs displaying infertility and a lack of libido, while bitches have an absence of heat cycles or may give birth to stillborn pups. There may be gastrointestinal problems with vomiting, diarrhoea and constipation. Other signs include eye problems (e.g. eyelid infections), liver inflammation, bleeding, loss of the sense of smell, mental dullness, cardiac problems (e.g. slow heart rate) and intolerance to cold.

 

Dogs at Risk

Castrated males and spayed females have increased risk. It is common in middle aged dogs.

 

 

ABNORMAL DENTITION Organ Systems Involved Gastrointestinal

 

Brief Description

Abnormal development position or number of teeth

 

 

HEPATITIS, CHRONIC ACTIVE Organ Systems Involved Gastrointestinal

 

Alternative Names Chronic Active Hepatitis (CAH) Chronic Canine Inflammatory Hepatic Disease (CCIHD)

 

 

Brief Description

A long term progressive liver disorder caused by the immune system mistakenly recognising the normal liver as foreign. The result is destruction of cells in the liver and inflammation of the liver.

 

Presenting Signs

The clinical signs of this disorder may vary between different breeds, but sufferers typically have jaundice (yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes) and an enlarged liver. Weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss and nervous system signs such as depression may also be apparent. This disorder has a variety of causes including viral, drugs or idiopathic (of unknown causation). The result is an immune response that ultimately leads to the destruction of the cells of the liver, with the organ becoming inflamed. In its later stages and most serious form, Chronic Active Hepatitis leads to liver cirrhosis (an end stage of the disease where normal liver tissue is relaced by fibrous tissue that cannot carry out normal liver functions), liver failure and death.

 

 

Dogs at Risk

Most common in females aged five to seven years.

 

 

IMMUNOGLOBULIN M DEFICIENCY Organ Systems Involved Immune

 

Alternative Names IgM deficiency

 

Brief Description

A susceptibility to infection related to poor production of antibodies useful in the early stages of an immune response

 

 

LEUKOCYTE ADHESION DEFICIENCY Organ Systems Involved Immune

 

Alternative Names Canine Granulocytopathy Syndrome Leucocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) Leukocyte adherence deficiency Beta-2-integrin deficiency CD18 deficiency CD11b deficiency Hagemoser-Takahashi syndrome

 

Brief Description

White blood cells are deficient in a particular protein, which prevents them from moving through the body tissues where they would normally combat bacterial infections.

 

Presenting Signs

Generally the severity of the disease depends on the degree of the protein deficiency, but usually affected dogs die early in life due to recurrent and severe bacterial infections. The symptoms seen in dogs with leukocyte adhesion deficiency are quite variable, as many different types of infections can occur. One of the most noticeable infections is gingivitis, in which the gums will be inflamed and may have ulcers and abscesses. Some dogs may have osteomyelitis. This is an inflammation of the bone marrow and it is often characterised by pain on opening the lower jaw. Sometimes there is swelling and infection between the toes (pododermatitis), which can also cause pain and lead to lameness. Pneumonia and other respiratory type infections are also possible. These are often characterised by wheezing, coughing and difficulty breathing. Skin lesions and wounds tend to heal much more slowly than normal and have minimal pus formation. Due to these recurrent infections, puppies with leukocyte adhesion deficiency will usually show signs of lethargy, depression, inappetence, fever and weight loss, and they will fail to thrive as well as their healthy littermates.

 

 

ACNE Organ Systems Involved Integument

 

Brief Description

Same condition asseen in humans, primarily affects the muzzle and lips

 

 

ACRAL LICK DERMATITIS Organ Systems Involved Integument

 

Alternative Names Acral lick granuloma

 

Brief Description

A disease maifested by the animal's excessively licking a localized spot on the skin, especially on the legs and paws

 

 

DEMODICOSIS Organ Systems Involved Integument

 

Alternative Names Demodectic mange

 

Brief Description

A form of mange (skin disease with hairloss and pustule formation) caused by microscopic Demodex canis mites living within the epidermal cells of the skin and often associated with an immunodeficiency syndrome

 

 

ENTROPION Organ Systems Involved Integument

 

Brief Description

Inward curling of the eyelid, most commonly the lower lid.

 

Presenting Signs

This condition is usually evident before the dog is one year of age. The affected animal can suffer a significant amount of pain due to the eyelashes of the inward-curled lid rubbing on the cornea. Because the eyelids are there to protect the eyes, irritation can also occur due to dust and small objects getting into the eye and damaging its outer surface. Irritation can lead to the dog rubbing at the affected area. Involuntary movements of the eyelid muscles, some discharge and teary eyes can also signal the problem, although if the condition is long standing, the eyes may not produce enough tears. There may be associated corneal ulcers that can lead to eyesight problems, squinting and sensitivity to light. A vision-impaired dog may have trouble recognising everyday objects such as food and water bowls, and people, and may run into furniture and other objects. In addition the difficulty in seeing may make the animal somewhat timid or aggressive in nature.

 

 

FOLLICULITIS Organ Systems Involved Integument

 

Brief Description

An infection of the hair follicles

 

 

GRANULOMATOUS SEBACEOUS ADENITIS Organ Systems Involved Integument

 

Brief Description

A disease of sweat glands in the skin that is characterized by increased tissue growth and autoimmune destruction of affected glands. Hair loss commonly occurs and the condition is responds poorly to treatment

 

 

HEMANGIOSARCOMA Organ Systems Involved Cardiovascular Integument

 

Brief Description

A cancer of blood vessels most notably in the speen, liver or skin

 

 

HYPOPIGMENTATION Organ Systems Involved Integument

 

Brief Description

Vitiligo is a condition in which pigment is absent from the hair or skin, resulting in white patches of hair or areas of pink skin.

 

 

PODODERMATITIS Organ Systems Involved Integument

 

Alternative Names Interdigital eczema Pedal eczema

 

Brief Description

A skin infection of the pads and paws

 

SEBACEOUS ADENITIS Organ Systems Involved Integument

 

Brief Description

A disease of sweat glands in the skin. Hair loss commonly occurs and the condition is responds poorly to treatment

 

 

VITILIGO Organ Systems Involved Integument

 

Brief Description

Vitiligo is a condition in which black pigment is lost from the hair or skin, resulting in white patches of hair or areas of pink skin where it was previously black.

 

Presenting Signs

Vitiligo affects the production of melanin, the dark pigment in the skin and hair. The immune system mistakenly produces proteins called antibodies that work against melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin. The result is a gradual loss of pigmentation. Depigmentation is commonly seen as abnormal areas of pink skin or white patches of hair, distributed symmetrically. These areas are non-inflammatory and do not include erosions or ulcers. In addition the dog has no symptoms of pain or itching. The abnormality may be temporary or permanent, and the areas affected may spontaneously regain pigment. Common sites affected are the facial skin, the eyelids and the areas around the eyes, the nose, the lips of the mouth, the muzzle, inside the mouth, the foot pads and nails.

 

Dogs at Risk

Young adult dogs, most frequently seen in animals of less than three years of age.

 

 

CALCIFICATION OF INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS Organ Systems Involved Musculoskeletal

 

Alternative Names ntervertebral Disc Disease

 

Brief Description

Affected dogs have abnormal deposits of calcium in the soft tissue of the intervertebral discs of their back and neck (the cushioning discs between the vertebral bones of the spine); this makes them prone to disc herniation, where the disc ruptures into the spinal cord causing pain, weakness and paralysis.

 

Presenting Signs

Affected dogs will show varying symptoms depending on the amount of calcium deposited, and its location along the spine (most commonly in the mid-back region). They may show neck and back pain, reluctance in jumping and walking up stairs, weakness, and they may be unable to support weight on their back limbs. Calcifications are most noticeable around the age of 12 -18 months, from which point they may increase in number or decrease without degenerating further. The possible effect of this disease is the rupture of the disc into the spinal cord. This causes increasingly severe signs including back pain, wobbly gait, weakness, loss of sensation in the legs and muscular paralysis. Other consequences of the ruptured disc and spinal nerve damage include severe bleeding inside the spinal cord and lack of bladder control.

 

 

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