Diseace2

Sjukdomar & åkommor som kan drabba dobermann. Source OMIA of Canine Disorders

 

 

CERVICAL VERTEBRAL MALFORMATION Organ Systems Involved Musculoskeletal

 

Alternative Names Spondylolisthesis Wobbler syndrome Cervical spondylopathy Wobbles Ataxia

 

Brief Description

Affected dogs have abnormalities in the bones and ligaments of the spine that create pressure on the spinal cord and result in an abnormal gait or an inability to walk.

 

Presenting Signs

The presenting signs of ataxia vary with the site in the spinal cord that is compressed, and with the degree of compression of the spinal cord. Some dogs may be only mildly lame or may have an unusual gait, moving the legs in a short choppy fashion. Usually the hind legs are more affected than the fore legs. The condition can also be so severe that the dog is unable to use two legs or even all four legs, thus being unable to walk. The compression on the spinal cord can increase over time, so those dogs that are initially only mildly affected can gradually become paralysed. The neck is often flexed with the head held towards the ground and the dog may be unwilling to lift its head. If the head is lifted up and extended the dog may show signs of pain such as yelping and may become unstable on its feet. When lying on their side, affected dogs may hold their legs stretched forward due to nervous system abnormalities. There is often muscle wasting over the shoulders due to reduced use of the muscles."

 

CRANIOMANDIBULAR OSTEOPATHY IN DOG Organ Systems Involved Musculoskeletal

 

Alternative Names Westie's disease Lion jaw Mandibular periostitis Temporomandibular osteodystrophy.

 

Brief Description

A disease that causes the lower jaw bone to become enlarged, causing pain (particularly during eating) and reducing the animal's ability to open its mouth.

 

Presenting Signs

Craniomandibular osteopathy occurs mainly in young dogs. The disease usually begins when the animal is between four and ten months of age. It is a bone disease that results in enlargement primarily of the lower jaw, but sometimes affects other bones of the skull, and in rare cases, the long bones. The most common signs of craniomandibular osteopathy include swelling of the lower jaw, which is painful to the touch, drooling or excessive salivation and difficulty grasping things using the mouth. Affected dogs may also experience pain and limited movement when opening their mouth. As a result they tend to eat less and consequently lose weight, another sign of craniomandibular osteopathy. Where the disease causes enlargement in the long bones (e.g. in the legs), lameness and/or painful swelling of the limbs may become obvious. During periods where the bones are actively growing, affected animals may also show signs of fever.

 

 

HIP DYSPLASIA Organ Systems Involved Musculoskeletal

 

Alternative Names Congenital dislocation of the hip Acetabular Dystrophy

 

Brief Description

Abnormal formation of the hip joint resulting in joint slackness, often leading to arthritis. In severe cases the dog may suffer lameness in the affected limb(s).

 

Presenting Signs

Dogs with hip dysplasia may suffer this condition in one or both hips. Outward signs vary depending on the severity of the condition, which usually worsens over time. Initial signs are likely to be a slight change in gait and difficulty getting up from a lying or sitting position, or in climbing stairs. A reluctance to move the affected joint may also be observed, for example, an otherwise obedient dog may show reluctance to sit on command. It is common for an affected dog to adopt a 'bunny hopping gait' by which it moves both rear legs simultaneously while running. Signs of a more serious condition include obvious pain when the leg is extended or when weight is placed on it, obvious lameness and stiffness especially after strenuous exercise, and in the most severe cases, permanent lameness in the affected limb. Dogs with naturally looser hip joints are more likely to develop problems with hip dysplasia than those with more tightly constructed joints. Overweight dogs are more susceptible due to greater strain on their joints. Also a young, growing dog with the genetic makeup for hip dysplasia is more likely to develop arthritis and have more eventual difficulty if it is extremely active.

 

 

OSTEOCHONDRITIS DISSECANS Organ Systems Involved Musculoskeletal

 

Alternative Names Osteochondrosis dissecans

 

Brief Description

Osteochondrosis dissecans is a defect in the smooth cartilage lining the edges of bones and joints. This abnormality often results in a small flap of joint cartilage protruding into the joint, and this can cause inflammatory joint changes.

 

Presenting Signs

Osteochondrosis dissecans develops in dogs at around three to eighteen months of age. The disease begins when the growing bone and cartilage at the ends of long bones (in the legs) dies. The bone and cartilage regenerate, creating a flap of joint cartilage that protrudes into the joint, resulting in an uneven joint surface. The grinding that results from movement creates small amounts of debris known as 'joint mice', small pieces of bone that either attach to the joint or float freely around the joint. This usually occurs in the hip, knee, hock and elbow. There is often a gradual onset of lameness in either the front or back legs, which improves after rest and worsens after exercise, flexion or extension of the joint. If there is osteoarthritis in the joint, some swelling and a crunchy feeling may be felt when the area is handled. There may also be some muscle wasting. X-rays are used to obtain a definitive diagnosis. For , cage rest is helpful in the early stages of the disease. The prognosis is usually very good if the 'joint mice' are removed early."

 

Dogs at Risk

Young, large and Giant Breeds

 

PANOSTEITIS Organ Systems Involved Musculoskeletal

 

Brief Description

Inflammation of a bone

 

POLYOSTOTIC FIBROUS DYSPLASIA Organ Systems Involved Musculoskeletal

 

Brief Description

A disease in which bones are composed of inaproppriate amounts of fibrous tissues

 

SPONDYLOLISTHESIS Organ Systems Involved Musculoskeletal

 

Alternative Names Cervical vertebral malformation Wobbler syndrome Cervical spondylopathy Wobbles Ataxia

 

Brief Description

Affected dogs have abnormalities in the bones and ligaments of the spine that create pressure on the spinal cord and result in an abnormal gait or an inability to walk.

 

Presenting Signs

The of ataxia vary with the site in the spinal cord that is compressed, and with the degree of compression of the spinal cord. Some dogs may be only mildly lame or may have an unusual gait, moving the legs in a short choppy fashion. Usually the hind legs are more affected than the fore legs. The condition can also be so severe that the dog is unable to use two legs or even all four legs, thus being unable to walk. The compression on the spinal cord can increase over time, so those dogs that are initially only mildly affected can gradually become paralysed. The neck is often flexed with the head held towards the ground and the dog may be unwilling to lift its head. If the head is lifted up and extended the dog may show signs of pain such as yelping and may become unstable on its feet. When lying on their side, affected dogs may hold their legs stretched forward due to nervous system abnormalities. There is often muscle wasting over the shoulders due to reduced use of the muscles."

 

BEHAVIORAL ABNORMALITIES Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory

 

Alternative Names Ethopathies Behavioural abnormalities Abnormal behaviour Abnormal behavior

 

Brief Description

A range of unwelcome and abnormal behavioral responses, including aggression and nervous disorders.

 

CATARACT Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory

 

Brief Description

Cataracts are abnormal lesions on one or both eyes, which results in a reduction of vision, even to the extent of being blind.

 

Presenting Signs

The main sign of cataracts is opacity of the lens of the eye. Affected dogs progressively lose their eyesight and are less able to detect motion. Cataracts are classified according to their location on the lens, their size, shape and appearance. The most common is the 'nuclear cataract' located in the centre of the lens. 'Anterior cataract' or 'anterior cortical cataract' is located on the front of the eye. 'Posterior cataract'/ 'posterior cortical cataract' is on the inner side of the eye and 'equatorial cataract'/ 'equatorial cortical cataract' on the periphery (edge) of the eye. Over time cataracts cannot change in location but may grow in size from small ('punctate') to larger ('intermediate').

 

COLOBOMA Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory

 

Brief Description

Coloboma is a rare condition and can be recognised as a gap/hole or notch defect in the eye structure. This gap can occur in the eyelid, iris, lens, choroids (the fine web of blood vessels that feed the retina) or optic disc (the area at the rear of the eyeball from which the optic fibres exit to carry information to the brain). Depending on the severity and location of the coloboma, eye defects such as cataracts, lens displacement and reduction of light entering the eye may result.

 

Presenting Signs

Signs of this disease can be seen as early as at the opening of the eyelids at 14 days of age. The absence of a sector of the iris may sometimes give the appearance of a 'keyhole' in the pupil. The pupil may appear to extend into the iris often with a jagged edge, slightly increasing the risk of retinal tearing. The eye may also be dramatically reduced in size in severe cases. Dogs with a large coloboma may be forced to squint in bright light due to the iris being unable to contract to reduce the amount of light entering the eye. Symptoms in an affected dog can range from corneal ulcers and pigmentation, constant squinting or excess production of tears, to abnormal behaviour.

 

Dogs at Risk

Merle dogs with predominant amounts of white in the coat.

 

COPPER STORAGE DISEASE Organ Systems Involved Endocrine Nervous/sensory

 

Alternative Names Copper Toxicosis (Dogs) Hepatic Copper Toxicosis (Dogs) Hepatolenticular Degeneration (Human), Wilson disease (Human) Copper Storage Hepatitis (Dogs) Copper Hepatoxicosis (Dogs) Copper-associated Hepatopathy (Dogs) Copper Storage Disease (Dogs)

 

Brief Description

Due to abnormal metabolism, copper accumulates in the body and causes poisoning (toxicity) mainly in the liver and the brain, resulting in liver disease and nervous system problems.

 

Presenting Signs

The canine disease, copper toxicosis differs genetically from the human form, Wilson disease. However, both produce similar symptoms and are treated in similar ways. Copper toxicosis falls into three categories, the first being the asymptomatic form, in which young dogs do not show any signs, as copper has not accumulated enough to cause toxicity. The second or acute form is when dogs of up to six years of age have a high copper accumulation within the liver, and show signs associated with liver disease such as depression, loss of appetite, lethargy, jaundice and vomiting. In the advanced stage of the disease, fluid may accumulate around the abdomen. The third or chronic form affects middle-aged to older dogs, and signs are similar to the acute group but less severe. Other common clinical signs include ongoing weight loss and deterioration of general condition. Stressful events, either physical or psychological, such as whelping, being shown, shipping, or a change in environment, may precipitate these episodes.

 

 

COPPER TOXICOSIS Organ Systems Involved Endocrine Nervous/sensory

 

Alternative Names Copper Storage Disease (Dogs) Hepatolenticular Degeneration (Human) Wilson disease (Human) Copper Storage Hepatitis (Dogs) Copper Hepatoxicosis (Dogs) Copper-associated Hepatopathy (Dogs) Hepatic Copper Toxicosis (Dogs)

 

Brief Description

Due to abnormal metabolism, copper accumulates in the body and causes poisoning (toxicity) mainly in the liver and the brain, resulting in liver disease and nervous system problems.

 

Presenting Signs

The canine disease, copper toxicosis differs genetically from the human form, Wilson disease. However, both produce similar symptoms and are treated in similar ways. Copper toxicosis falls into three categories, the first being the asymptomatic form, in which young dogs do not show any signs, as copper has not accumulated enough to cause toxicity. The second or acute form is when dogs of up to six years of age have a high copper accumulation within the liver, and show signs associated with liver disease such as depression, loss of appetite, lethargy, jaundice and vomiting. In the advanced stage of the disease, fluid may accumulate around the abdomen. The third or chronic form affects middle-aged to older dogs, and signs are similar to the acute group but less severe. Other common clinical signs include ongoing weight loss and deterioration of general condition. Stressful events, either physical or psychological, such as whelping, being shown, shipping, or a change in environment, may precipitate these episodes.

 

FLANK SUCKING Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory

 

Alternative Names Stereotypy Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

 

Brief Description

A behavioral problem seen in Doberman pinschers that most commonly presents as a continually wet patch on the side of the belly (from sucking the skin)

 

MICROPHTHALMIA Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory

 

Alternative Names Microphthalmos

 

Brief Description

A condition where one or both eyes are too small.

 

Presenting Signs

 

Microphthalmia occurs to various degrees and affected eyes may show multiple abnormalities. For example, sometimes the eye is not only small but also various parts of the eye (such as the iris and cornea) may be under-developed because they have not grown since the puppy was an embryo. The disorder may result in blindness for affected dogs, but this will depend on the extent of the defects. The eyes often become prematurely cloudy later in life if the lens has related abnormalities such as cataracts.

 

Dogs at Risk

Microphthalmia and related abnormalities occur more often in merle-coloured dogs, especially those with predominantly white hairs in their coats rather than those with limited white hairs.

 

NARCOLEPSY Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory

 

Brief Description

Narcolepsy is a nervous system condition in which dogs are excessively sleepy during the daytime and have disrupted sleep patterns.

 

Presenting Signs

Narcolepsy affects the sleep patterns of dogs, and is characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness and napping (a key symptom, present in all cases). Affected animals usually begin to exhibit signs at around 4 -12 weeks of age. Dogs with narcolepsy often have disrupted sleep patterns and tend to have episodes where they will suddenly just fall asleep. In narcoleptic dogs excitement and emotion can trigger sleeping episodes, with eating being the main cause. Dogs will start eating, only to suddenly fall to the ground asleep. They can be woken if spoken to or shaken, but once they continue eating they are likely to simply fall asleep again. Play or presentation of food can also trigger attacks of generalised temporary muscle paralysis without sleep, in which the animal may wobble on its feet and look slightly dazed for several minutes. During such attacks the respiratory and eye muscles remain unaffected, though affected dogs may have impaired vision. Sleep paralysis, where upon waking or on dozing the animal is temporarily paralysed, and hypnologic hallucinations, where patients experience dream-like visions when dozing, though not in the dream stage of sleep, are also common symptoms in humans. Due to their subjective nature these symptoms cannot be used in diagnosing canine narcolepsy.

 

PERSISTENT PUPILLARY MEMBRANE Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory

 

Brief Description

A developmental abnormality in which the fetal membrane that forms the iris does not regress properly after birth

 

PROGRESSIVE RETINAL ATROPHY (PRA) (X-LINKED) Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory

 

Alternative Names Congenital Night Blindness Pigment Epithelial Dystrophy Primary Retinal Degeneration Rod-cone Dysplasia Rod Dysplasia Rod-cone Degeneration

 

Brief Description

A condition where the nerve cells and blood vessels of the retina (the layer at the back of the eye that responds to light, collects messages and passes them on to the brain) degenerate.

 

Presenting Signs

Progressive Retinal Atrophy is the most common disease of the retina in dogs. It has been divided into two categories: Generalised PRA and Central PRA, based on the symptoms. The age at which the degeneration begins varies between breeds and individual dogs. In both instances, the receptor (nerve) cells lining the retina begin to degenerate and the blood vessels feeding the retina become smaller, so less nutrients reach the eye. An early sign of Generalised PRA is night blindness, which progresses until day vision is affected, and eventually ends in total blindness. The disease first attacks the rod cells (light sensitive cells), so night vision is affected. The dog is shy and has poor vision at dusk and at night, or in dimly lit places. It also moves with caution and has a tendency to bump into objects. Other symptoms include the loss of peripheral vision, resulting in 'tunnel vision' in which the dog can only see objects directly in front of it. Also, the pupils of the dog will be dilated, to allow more light into the eye, and the retina is extremely reflective when the dog faces lights at night. Central PRA is different as peripheral vision is unaffected for many years. However, the central field of vision of the dog is impaired. Night blindness is not so commonly seen. The dog can still see moving objects up to a point where the disease is very advanced, but it will collide with stationary objects. In later stages of the disease, cataracts may form in the eye.

 

 

RETINAL DYSPLASIA Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory

 

Alternative Names Retinal detachment Hereditary retinal detachment Retinoschisis Dysplastic retina

 

Brief Description

Retinal dysplasia is due to the incorrect formation of the retina (the back surface of the eye, which collects visual information to be sent to the brain), resulting in reduced or complete loss of vision.

 

Presenting Signs

Owners observe reduced or complete loss of vision from as early as about six to eight weeks of age. Retinal dysplasia can be present in two forms: a mild form known as multifocal retinal dysplasia and the much more severe variation known as total retinal dysplasia. Dogs with multiple retinal dysplasia lead a normal life with no apparent clinical signs, as their vision is not severely disturbed. Dogs with total retinal dysplasia suffer blindness in either one or both eyes.

 

 

KARTAGENER SYNDROME Organ Systems Involved Respiratory

 

Alternative Names Ciliary dyskinesia Immotile cilia syndrome

 

Brief Description

A condition in which the cilia (tiny hair-like processes that help trap and carry foreign matter out of the airways) lining the respiratory tract do not function properly, causing affected dogs to be highly prone to respiratory infections.

 

Presenting Signs

From a young age, affected dogs will usually suffer from repeated respiratory infections such as pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs), rhinitis (inflammation of the nostrils), bronchiectasis (dilation of the small airways due to excessive coughing) and bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchioles), as well as infections of the ear and sinuses. The typical signs of these respiratory infections are usually variable, but may include coughing, nasal discharge (often high in mucus), wheezing, difficulty breathing, difficulty exercising, fever, difficulty hearing and weight loss. Affected males usually have immotile, or poorly motile sperm, and hence will often be infertile. Behavioural changes such as depression may also be noted. Kartagener syndrome seems to be associated with situs inversus, that is, the organs are located on the side of the body opposite to normal. Approximately 50% of dogs with Kartagener syndrome also have situs inversus.

 

 

KIDNEY APLASIA, UNILATERAL Organ Systems Involved Urogenital

 

Alternative Names Mononephrosis Renal agenesis

 

Brief Description

 

A developmental abnormality where one kidney fails to develop

 

 

RENAL CORTICAL HYPOPLASIA Organ Systems Involved Urogenital

 

Alternative Names Renal hypoplasia, bilateral

 

Brief Description

A condition in which the kidneys cause continual protein loss in urine that leads to wastage

 

 

RENAL DYSPLASIA Organ Systems Involved Urogenital

 

Alternative Names Deficiency of claudin-16 CLDN 16 deficiency Deficiency of Paracellin 1 PCLN1 deficiency

 

Brief Description

Renal dysplasia is a condition in which the kidneys of the dog are abnormal at birth, causing a decrease in the dog's ability to eliminate waste products from its body.

 

Presenting Signs

Many dogs that suffer from renal dysplasia have been observed to be the runts of the litter and have abnormal, stunted growth. As the affected dog grows its kidneys become over-worked. This means that the dog's kidneys start to become unable to process the body's wastes. This causes the symptoms of the disease to worsen, and the affected dog often shows signs of dehydration, excessive water consumption, depression, lethargy, vomiting and diarrhoea. Also, affected dogs often have foul smelling breath and ulcers in their mouth, the result of a build up of toxins in the blood. When tested clinically, a urine analysis and a blood analysis will often show signs of long-term kidney insufficiency. However, to conclusively diagnose renal dysplasia a biopsy (small tissue sample) of the kidney must be taken and analysed, or if the dog dies the disorder can be diagnosed by post mortem.

 

 

RENAL HYPOPLASIA, BILATERAL Organ Systems Involved Urogenital

 

Alternative Names Renal cortical hypoplasia

 

Brief Description

Renal hypoplasia occurs in the embryo when there is a developmental disruption to the ureter, which is the tube connecting the bladder to the kidney. This also halts the development of the connected kidney, so that the kidney is much smaller than normal.

 

Presenting Signs

Bilateral renal hypoplasia is the condition in which both kidneys are affected, with resultant chronic kidney failure as the normal functioning of the kidney is greatly impaired. The main role of the kidney is to filter the blood and regulate the amount of water absorbed, and the disruption to this function caused by the disorder is very serious. Affected dogs will experience intense thirst. The affected body will tend to expel water through vomiting, diarrhoea and excessive urination, leading to the dehydration of the animal, and creating a cycle where the dog is intensely thirsty again. Accompanying this the animal may have signs of ulceration in the mouth and foul-smelling breath associated with reduced appetite and weight loss. In the final stages of the disease the dog may pass small amounts of urine. In addition to all of these symptoms, affected dogs are usually extremely depressed.

 

 

Dogs at Risk

Young dogs, generally 3-24 months old.

 

 

 

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