EST 1989 FCI/SKK Kennel Dobgun´s
Sjukdomar & åkommor, Source OMIA of Canine Disorders
VON WILLEBRAND'S DISEASE Organ Systems Involved Cardiovascular
Alternative Names Angiohemophilia Pseudohemophilia Vascular hemophilia.
The process of blood clotting requires a number of important factors, and dogs suffering from von Willebrand's disease have a deficiency of von Willebrand's factor necessary for the normal clotting of blood.
The majority of dogs with von Willebrand's disease do not bleed spontaneously, rather, bleeding is usually started by physical abrasion, and may be noticed during surgical procedures, vaccination or drug therapy. Bleeding tends to be mostly from the mucous membranes (the moist linings of the body such as the gums, skin between the toes and the skin of the vulva and penis) and the severity is highly variable. Larger dogs may experience increased bleeding due to the pressure of weight on tiny blood vessels. Due to the fact that bleeding doesn't usually occur until surgery or an injury occurs, many cases are not recognised early in life and it is not uncommon to diagnose von Willebrand's in mature and even aged patients.
ADDISON'S DISEASE Organ Systems Involved Endocrine
Alternative Names Hypoadrenocorticism Primary adrenocortical insufficiency Adrenal cortical atrophy
Adrenal cortical atrophy is destruction of the outer layer of the adrenal glands, small glands situated on the kidneys. This results in deficient production of hormones called mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids.
The most common symptoms of this disorder are lethargy, vomiting, anorexia and weakness. Other signs such as diarrhoea, weight loss, increased thirst and increased urination may also be evident. The destruction of the adrenal glands is a gradual process. Initially partial destruction of the adrenal cortex produces symptoms that are only obvious during stressful situations such as boarding, travel or surgery. As the adrenal glands are progressively destroyed, the symptoms are evident even in non-stressful situations, and the majority of dogs have chronic problems that may have been present for up to one year.
Dogs at Risk
Young to middle aged female dogs and castrated male dogs.
ACNE Organ Systems Involved Integument
Same condition asseen in humans, primarily affects the muzzle and lips
ACRAL LICK DERMATITIS Organ Systems Involved Integument
Alternative Names Acral lick granuloma
A disease maifested by the animal's excessively licking a localized spot on the skin, especially on the legs and paws
DEMODICOSIS Organ Systems Involved Integument
Alternative Names Demodectic mange
A form of mange (skin disease with hairloss and pustule formation) caused by microscopic Demodex canis mites living within the epidermal cells of the skin and often associated with an immunodeficiency syndrome
ENTROPION Organ Systems Involved Integument
Inward curling of the eyelid, most commonly the lower lid.
This condition is usually evident before the dog is one year of age. The affected animal can suffer a significant amount of pain due to the eyelashes of the inward-curled lid rubbing on the cornea. Because the eyelids are there to protect the eyes, irritation can also occur due to dust and small objects getting into the eye and damaging its outer surface. Irritation can lead to the dog rubbing at the affected area. Involuntary movements of the eyelid muscles, some discharge and teary eyes can also signal the problem, although if the condition is long standing, the eyes may not produce enough tears. There may be associated corneal ulcers that can lead to eyesight problems, squinting and sensitivity to light. A vision-impaired dog may have trouble recognising everyday objects such as food and water bowls, and people, and may run into furniture and other objects. In addition the difficulty in seeing may make the animal somewhat timid or aggressive in nature.
FOLLICULITIS Organ Systems Involved Integument
An infection of the hair follicles
HIP DYSPLASIA Organ Systems Involved Musculoskeletal
Alternative Names Congenital dislocation of the hip Acetabular Dystrophy
Abnormal formation of the hip joint resulting in joint slackness, often leading to arthritis. In severe cases the dog may suffer lameness in the affected limb(s).
Dogs with hip dysplasia may suffer this condition in one or both hips. Outward signs vary depending on the severity of the condition, which usually worsens over time. Initial signs are likely to be a slight change in gait and difficulty getting up from a lying or sitting position, or in climbing stairs. A reluctance to move the affected joint may also be observed, for example, an otherwise obedient dog may show reluctance to sit on command. It is common for an affected dog to adopt a 'bunny hopping gait' by which it moves both rear legs simultaneously while running. Signs of a more serious condition include obvious pain when the leg is extended or when weight is placed on it, obvious lameness and stiffness especially after strenuous exercise, and in the most severe cases, permanent lameness in the affected limb. Dogs with naturally looser hip joints are more likely to develop problems with hip dysplasia than those with more tightly constructed joints. Overweight dogs are more susceptible due to greater strain on their joints. Also a young, growing dog with the genetic makeup for hip dysplasia is more likely to develop arthritis and have more eventual difficulty if it is extremely active.
CATARACT Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory
Cataracts are abnormal lesions on one or both eyes, which results in a reduction of vision, even to the extent of being blind.
The main sign of cataracts is opacity of the lens of the eye. Affected dogs progressively lose their eyesight and are less able to detect motion. Cataracts are classified according to their location on the lens, their size, shape and appearance. The most common is the 'nuclear cataract' located in the centre of the lens. 'Anterior cataract' or 'anterior cortical cataract' is located on the front of the eye. 'Posterior cataract'/ 'posterior cortical cataract' is on the inner side of the eye and 'equatorial cataract'/ 'equatorial cortical cataract' on the periphery (edge) of the eye. Over time cataracts cannot change in location but may grow in size from small ('punctate') to larger ('intermediate').
PERSISTENT PUPILLARY MEMBRANE Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory
A developmental abnormality in which the fetal membrane that forms the iris does not regress properly after birth
PROGRESSIVE RETINAL ATROPHY (PRA) (X-LINKED) Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory
Alternative Names Congenital Night Blindness Pigment Epithelial Dystrophy Primary Retinal Degeneration Rod-cone Dysplasia Rod Dysplasia Rod-cone Degeneration
A condition where the nerve cells and blood vessels of the retina (the layer at the back of the eye that responds to light, collects messages and passes them on to the brain) degenerate.
Progressive Retinal Atrophy is the most common disease of the retina in dogs. It has been divided into two categories: Generalised PRA and Central PRA, based on the symptoms. The age at which the degeneration begins varies between breeds and individual dogs. In both instances, the receptor (nerve) cells lining the retina begin to degenerate and the blood vessels feeding the retina become smaller, so less nutrients reach the eye. An early sign of Generalised PRA is night blindness, which progresses until day vision is affected, and eventually ends in total blindness. The disease first attacks the rod cells (light sensitive cells), so night vision is affected. The dog is shy and has poor vision at dusk and at night, or in dimly lit places. It also moves with caution and has a tendency to bump into objects. Other symptoms include the loss of peripheral vision, resulting in 'tunnel vision' in which the dog can only see objects directly in front of it. Also, the pupils of the dog will be dilated, to allow more light into the eye, and the retina is extremely reflective when the dog faces lights at night. Central PRA is different as peripheral vision is unaffected for many years. However, the central field of vision of the dog is impaired. Night blindness is not so commonly seen. The dog can still see moving objects up to a point where the disease is very advanced, but it will collide with stationary objects. In later stages of the disease, cataracts may form in the eye.
RETINAL DYSPLASIA Organ Systems Involved Nervous/sensory
Alternative Names Retinal detachment Hereditary retinal detachment Retinoschisis Dysplastic retina
Retinal dysplasia is due to the incorrect formation of the retina (the back surface of the eye, which collects visual information to be sent to the brain), resulting in reduced or complete loss of vision.
Owners observe reduced or complete loss of vision from as early as about six to eight weeks of age. Retinal dysplasia can be present in two forms: a mild form known as multifocal retinal dysplasia and the much more severe variation known as total retinal dysplasia. Dogs with multiple retinal dysplasia lead a normal life with no apparent clinical signs, as their vision is not severely disturbed. Dogs with total retinal dysplasia suffer blindness in either one or both eyes.
KIDNEY APLASIA, UNILATERAL Organ Systems Involved Urogenital
Alternative Names Mononephrosis Renal agenesis
A developmental abnormality where one kidney fails to develop
RENAL CORTICAL HYPOPLASIA Organ Systems Involved Urogenital
Alternative Names Renal hypoplasia, bilateral
A condition in which the kidneys cause continual protein loss in urine that leads to wastage
RENAL DYSPLASIA Organ Systems Involved Urogenital
Alternative Names Deficiency of claudin-16 CLDN 16 deficiency Deficiency of Paracellin 1 PCLN1 deficiency
Renal dysplasia is a condition in which the kidneys of the dog are abnormal at birth, causing a decrease in the dog's ability to eliminate waste products from its body.
Many dogs that suffer from renal dysplasia have been observed to be the runts of the litter and have abnormal, stunted growth. As the affected dog grows its kidneys become over-worked. This means that the dog's kidneys start to become unable to process the body's wastes. This causes the symptoms of the disease to worsen, and the affected dog often shows signs of dehydration, excessive water consumption, depression, lethargy, vomiting and diarrhoea. Also, affected dogs often have foul smelling breath and ulcers in their mouth, the result of a build up of toxins in the blood. When tested clinically, a urine analysis and a blood analysis will often show signs of long-term kidney insufficiency. However, to conclusively diagnose renal dysplasia a biopsy (small tissue sample) of the kidney must be taken and analysed, or if the dog dies the disorder can be diagnosed by post mortem.
RENAL HYPOPLASIA, BILATERAL Organ Systems Involved Urogenital
Alternative Names Renal cortical hypoplasia
Renal hypoplasia occurs in the embryo when there is a developmental disruption to the ureter, which is the tube connecting the bladder to the kidney. This also halts the development of the connected kidney, so that the kidney is much smaller than normal.
Bilateral renal hypoplasia is the condition in which both kidneys are affected, with resultant chronic kidney failure as the normal functioning of the kidney is greatly impaired. The main role of the kidney is to filter the blood and regulate the amount of water absorbed, and the disruption to this function caused by the disorder is very serious. Affected dogs will experience intense thirst. The affected body will tend to expel water through vomiting, diarrhoea and excessive urination, leading to the dehydration of the animal, and creating a cycle where the dog is intensely thirsty again. Accompanying this the animal may have signs of ulceration in the mouth and foul-smelling breath associated with reduced appetite and weight loss. In the final stages of the disease the dog may pass small amounts of urine. In addition to all of these symptoms, affected dogs are usually extremely depressed.
Dogs at Risk
Young dogs, generally 3-24 months old.